A filament yarn in which filaments have been cut or broken to create hairiness (fibrillation) to simulate the surface character of spun yarns. Abraded yarns are usually plied or twisted with other yarns before use.
The ability of a substance to transform radiant energy into a different form, usually with a resulting rise in temperature. Mathematically, absorbance is the negative logarithm to the base 10 of transmittance.
The ability of fabric to take in moisture. Very important in relation to skin comfort, but other factors important too, effect on static build up, staining and removal, water repellency, shrinkage and wrinkling.
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate (FTC definition). Acetate is manufactured by treating purified cellulose refined from cotton linters and/or wood pulp with acetic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst. The resultant product, cellulose acetate flake, is precipitated, purified, dried, and dissolved in acetone to prepare the spinning solution. After filtration, the highly viscous solution is extruded through spinnerets into a column of warm air in which the acetone is evaporated, leaving solid continuous filaments of cellulose acetate. The evaporated acetone is recovered using a solvent recovery system to prepare additional spinning solution. The cellulose acetate fibers are intermingled and wound onto a bobbin or shippable metier cheese package, ready for use without further chemical processing. In the manufacture of staple fiber, the filaments from numerous spinnerets are combined into tow form, crimped, cut to the required length, and packaged in bales.
Dimethyl ketone (CH3COCH3). One of the most powerful organic solvents. Acetone dissolves secondary cellulose acetate and other derivatives of cellulose. It is miscible with water and has a low boiling point (55-56°C).
A class of dyes used on wool, other animal fibers, and some manufactured fibers.Acid dyes are seldom used on cotton or linen since this process requires a mordant. Acid dyes are widely used on nylon when high wash fastness is required. In some cases, even higher wash fastness can be obtained by after treatment with fixatives.
A reclamation process in chemical processing in which acid is extracted from a raw material, by-product, or waste product. In the manufacture of cellulose acetate, acetic acid is a major by-product. Acid recovery consists of combining all wash water containing appreciable acetic acid and concentrating it to obtain glacial acetic acid.
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile units [-CH2-CH(CN)-] (FTC definition). Acrylic fibers are produced by two basic methods of spinning (extrusion), dry and wet. In the dry spinning method, material to be spun is dissolved is a solvent. After extrusion through the spinneret, the solvent is evaporated, producing continuous filaments which later may be cut into staple, if desired. In wet spinning, the spinning solution is extruded into a liquid coagulating bath to form filaments, which are drawn, dried, and processed.
A reaction yielding a polymer in which the molecular formula of the repeating unit is identical with that of the monomer. The molecular weight of a polymer so formed is a simple sum of the molecular weight of the combined monomer units. Combination occurs by means of rearrangement of the chemical bonds.
Products used to treat the smooth fiber-face of closely constructed base fabric to provide a chemical bonding site for subsequent coating. This step is done because it is difficult to get good coating adhesion via strike-through and mechanical bonding in closely constructed fabrics. Products containing the isocyanate group are the most widely used promoters. See DIP TREATING.
Polymer, resin, or other matrix-material system in which reinforcement is accomplished via high-strength, high-modulus materials in continuous filament form or is discontinuous form such as staple fibers, fibrets, and in-situ dispersions. See COMPOSITE.
Any treatment done after fabric production. In dyeing, it refers to treating dyed material in ways to improve properties; in nonwovens, it refers to finishing processes carried out after a web has been formed and bonded. Examples are embossing, creping, softening, printing, and dyeing.
1. Deterioration of textile or other materials caused by gradual oxidation during storage and/or exposure to light. 2. The oxidation stage of alkali-cellulose in the manufacture of viscose rayon from bleached wood pulp. 3. Originally, a process in which printed fabric was exposed to a hot, moist atmosphere. Presently, the term is applied to the treatment of printed fabric in moist steam in the absence of air. Ageing is also used for the development of certain colors in dyeing, e.g., aniline black.
1. A chemical process for sealing short, fuzzy fibers into a yarn. Fabrics made from air-conditioned yarns are porous. Because they allow more air circulation, these fabrics are also cooler. 2. Control of temperature and/or humidity in work or living space.
In this method of texturing, yarn is led through the turbulent region of an air jet at a rate faster than it is drawn off on the far side of the jet. In the jet, the yarn structure is opened, loops are formed, and the structure is closed again. Some loops are locked inside and others are locked on the surface of the yarn. An example of this method is the Taslan process. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS, CORE-BULKED YARN and ENTANGLED YARN.)
A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air. In this process, the fibers are drafted to appropriate sliver size, then fed to the air jet chambers where they are twisted, first in one direction, then in the reverse direction in a second chamber. They are stabilized after each twisting operation.
The porosity or the ease with which air passes through material. Air permeability determines such factors as the wind resistance of sailcloth, the air resistance of parachute cloth, and the efficacy of various types of air filters. It also influences the warmth or coolness of a fabric.
A plain, tightly woven, water-repellent fabric traditionally made of mercerized cotton. During World War I, the fabric was treated with a cellulose acetate dope and used to cover the wings, tail, and fuselage of airplanes. Today, similar fabrics made from nylon or polyester/cotton blends are used in rainwear and sportswear.
A soft, lightweight wool or wool blend fabric in a plain weave with a napped, fleecy surface that resembles in texture, the breast of the albatross. It is usually light-colored and is used in negligees, infants wear, etc.
1. Long, fine hair from Alpaca sheep. 2. A fabric from alpaca fibers or blends, (originally a cotton cloth with alpaca filling) that is used for dresses, coats, suits, and sweaters. It is also used as a pile lining for jackets and coats. (The term has been incorrectly used to describe a rayon fabric.)
A 1 x 1 purl-links stitch that is knit so that the courses run vertically instead of horizontally as the fabric comes off the knitting machine. A garment made with an alpaca stitch is not always 100% alpaca; it can be made of other natural or manufactured fibers.
One of three forms of cellulose. Alpha cellulose has the highest degree of polymerization and is the chief constituent of paper pulp and chemical dissolving-grade pulp. See BETA CELLULOSE and GAMMA CELLULOSE.
1. The hair of the Angora goat. The long, fine fibers are so smooth and soft that they must be combined with other fibers in weaving. 2. The hair of the Angora rabbit. The fine, lightweight hair is warm, and it is often blended with wool to decrease price and to obtain novelty effects in weaving. By law, the fiber must be described as Angora rabbit hair.
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 50% by weight of one or more esters of a monohydric alcohol and acrylic acid, (CH2=CH-COOH) (FTC definition).
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming material is a long chain synthetic polyamide having at least 85% of its amide linkages (-NH-CO-) attached directly to two aromatic rings (FTC definition). Aramid fibers exhibit low flammability, high strength, and high modulus. Fabrics made from aramid fibers maintain their integrity at high temperatures, such fabrics are used extensively in hot-air filters. Aramids are also found in protective clothing, ropes and cables, and tire cord.
1. The ratio of length to diameter of a fiber or yarn bundle. 2. In tire production, the ratio of the height of the tire to its width. 3. In a rectangular structure, the ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter.
A thick knit or woven fabric with loops or curls on the face. The base yarns are usually cotton or wool and the loops are made with fibers such as mohair, wool, and certain manufactured fibers. The face simulated the pelt of the astrakhan lamb.
A type of polymer molecule in which substituent groups or atoms are arranged randomly above and below the backbone chain of atoms, when the latter are all in the same plane (e.g., in polypropylene). (Also see ISOTACTIC POLYMER, SYNDIOTACTIC POLYMER, and TACTIC POLYMER.)
1. An apparatus for carrying out certain finishing operation, such as pleating and heat setting, under pressure in a superheated steam atmosphere. 2. Apparatus for polymerizing condensation polymers such as nylon or polyester at any pressure above or below atmospheric.
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