firm, glossy, Jacquard-patterned fabric that may be made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or a combination of these with various manufactured fibers. Similar to brocade, but flatter and reversible, damask is used for napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.
DAMPENING (IN TIRE CORD)
The relative ability to absorb energy and deaden oscillation after excitation.
crease mark or impression extending filling wise across the fabric near the beginning or end of the piece. See LEADER MARK APRON MARK
A finishing process in which fabric, wound tightly on a perforated roller, either has hot water circulated through it (wet decatizing), or has steam blown through it (dry decatizing). The process is aimed chiefly at improving the hand and removing wrinkles. See DECATING
One tenth of a tex.
A mechanical process for separating the woody matter from the bast fiber of such plants as ramie and hemp.
Polymers that have been chemically modified to increase their dye-ability. Fibers and fabrics made therefrom can be dyed to very heavy depth.
A general term that refers to some flaw in a textile product that detracts from either performance or appearance properties.
A change in the shape of a specimen, e.g., an increase in length produced as the result of the application of a tensile load or force. Deformation may be immediate or delayed, and the latter may be recoverable or non-recoverable.
The loss of desirable physical properties by a textile material as a result of some process or physical/chemical phenomenon.
DEGREE OF ESTERIFICATION
The extent to which the acid groups of terephthalic and/or other acids have reacted with diols to form ester groups in polyester polymer production.
DEGREE OF POLYMERIZATION
Refers to the number of monomer units in an average polymer. It can be controlled during processing and affects the properties of the end product.
The removal of gum from silk by boiling in a mildly alkaline solution. Usually accomplished on the knit or woven fabric. See STRIPPING
Deformation that is time-dependent and is exhibited by material subjected to a continuing load; creep. Delayed deformation may be recoverable following removal of the applied load. See PRIMARY CREEP SECONDARY CREEP CREEP
Subduing or dulling the natural luster of a textile material by chemical or physical means. The term often refers to the use of titanium dioxide or other white pigments as delustrants in textile materials.
A substance that can be used to dull the luster of a manufactured fiber. Often a pigment such as titanium dioxide.
A weight-per-unit-length measure of any linear material. Officially, it is the number of unit weights of 0.05 grams per 450-meter length. This is numerically equal to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of the material. Denier is a direct numbering system in which the lower numbers represent the finer sizes and the higher numbers the coarser sizes. In the U.S., the denier system is used for numbering filament yarns (except glass), manufactured fiber staple (but not spun yarns), and tow. In most countries outside the U.S., the denier system has been replaced by the tex system. The following denier terms are in use: Denier per Filament (dpf): The denier of an individual continuous filament or an individual staple fiber if it were continuous. In filament yarns, it is the yarn denier divided by the number of filaments. Yard Denier: The denier of a filament yarn. It is the product of the denier per filament and the number of filaments in the yarn. Total Denier: The denier of a tow before it is crimped. It is the product of the denier per filament and the number of filaments in the tow. The total denier after crimping (called crimped total denier) is higher because of the resultant increase in weight per unit length.
Usually variation in diameter, or other cross-sectional dimension, along the length of a filament or bundle of filaments. It is caused by malfunction or lack of process control in fiber manufacturing and degrades resulting fabric appearance or performance.
A firm 2 x 1 or 3 x 1 twill-weave fabric, often having a whitish tinge, obtained by using white filling yarns with colored warp yarns. Heavier weight denims, usually blue or brown, are used for dungarees, work clothes, and mens and womens sportswear. Lighter weight denims with softer finish are made in a variety of colors and patterns and are used for sportswear and draperies.
On a loom, the space between the wires of a reed.
Process of disordering or dis-aligning the crimp in a tow band to produce bulk. (Also see THREADED-ROLL PROCESS
An after treatment to remove sulfur from newly spun viscose rayon by passing the yarn through a sodium sulfide solution.
A synthetic cleaning agent containing surfactants that do not precipitate in hard water and have the ability to emulsify oil and suspend dirt.
Dyes that are formed by the use of a developer. The substrate is first dyed in a neutral solution with a dye base, usually colorless. The dye is then diazotized with sodium nitrate and an acid and afterwards treated with a solution of B-naphthol, or a similar substance, which is the developer. Direct dyes are developed to produce a different shade or to improve wash-fastness or light-fastness. See NAPHTHOL DYES DYES
A stage in dyeing or printing in which leuco compounds, dyes, or dye intermediates are converted to the final, stable state or shade.
The temperature at which a gas begins to condense as a liquid at a given pressure. Thus in air, it is the temperature at which the air becomes saturated when cooled with no further addition of moisture or change in pressure.
DIAGONAL (45 DEGREE) FLAME TEST
In this test for flame resistance, a specimen is mounted at a 45 degree angle and exposed to an open flame for a specific time. This test measures the ease of ignition and rate of burning of the samples. See FLAMMABILITY TESTS
In a circular-knitting machine, a circular steel plate with radially arranged slots for needles. A knitting machine equipped with both a dial and a cylinder (q.v.) can produce double-knit fabrics.
A compound with two amino groups. Hexamethylenediamine, one of the intermediates in the manufacture of nylon 66 salt, is an example of this chemical type.
DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE
In an electrical insulating material, the voltage at which electrical breakdown occurs, i.e., the voltage at which current will flow and/or the material melts.
Measure of the ability of a dielectric material to store electrical potential energy under the influence of an electric field, measured by the ratio of the capacitance of a condenser with the material as the dielectric to its capacitance with a vacuum as the dielectric. See PERMITTIVITY
The average voltage gradient at which electrical failure or breakdown occurs. Expressed in volts per mil.
DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS
A method of determining the temperature at which thermal events occur in a material undergoing continuous heating.
1. A more or less gradual movement of molecules or ions through a solution or fiber as a result of the existence of a concentration gradient or repulsive or attractive forces. 2. The random movement of gas molecules.
ability of a fabric to be returned to its original dimensions after laundering or dry cleaning, expressed in percent. For example, 2% dimensional restorability means that although a fabric may shrink more than this in washing, it can be restored to within 2% of its original dimensions by ordinary home pressing methods.
The ability of textile material to maintain or return to its original geometric configuration.
[p-C6H4(COOCH3)2] An intermediate used in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, the polymer from which polyester fibers and resins are made.
A sheer, thin, spun cloth that sometimes has cords or stripes woven in. It is used for aprons, pinafores, and many types of dress goods.
1. Immersion of a textile material in some processing liquid. The term is usually used in connection with a padding or slashing process. 2. The rubber compound with which tire cords and other in-rubber textiles are treated to give improved adhesion to rubber.
The process of passing a fabric through a solution of resin or elastomer, then through squeeze rolls to remove excess and leave a thin surface layer on the base fabric. In this process, both sides can be coated in one pass. Also see DIP TREATING
The degree of saturation through a tire cord after impregnation with an adhesive.
The amount of adhesive applied to a tire cord by dipping, expressed as a percentage of the weight of the cord before dipping.
The process of passing fiber, cord, or fabric through an adhesive bath, followed by drying and heat-treating of the adhesive-coated fiber to obtain better adhesion. See ADHESION PROMOTERS DIP COATING
A class of dye stuffs that are applied directly to the substrate in a neutral or alkaline bath. They produce full shades on cotton and linen without mordanting and can also be applied to rayon, silk, and wool. Direct dyes give bright shades but exhibit poor wash-fastness. Various after-treatments are used to improve the wash-fastness of direct dyes, and such dyes are referred to as 'after-treated direct colors.' See DYES
In the production of polyethylene terephthalate, the process in which ethylene glycol is reacted with terephthalic acid to form bis-?-hydroxyethyl terephthalate monomer with the generation of water as a by-product.
A process wherein the colors for the desired designs are applied directly to the white or dyed cloth, as distinguished from discharge printing and resist printing. See PRINTING
DIRECTIONALLY ORIENTED FABRICS
Rigid fabric constructions containing inlaid warp or fill yarns held in place by a warp-knit structure. Used in geotextiles, coated fabrics, composites, etc.
An in-rubber test used to predict the fatigue resistance of tire cords and other industrial yarns.
In 'white' discharge printing, the fabric is piece dyed, then printed with a paste containing a chemical that reduces the dye and hence removes the color where the white designs are desired. In 'colored' discharge printing, a color is added to the discharge paste in order to replace the discharged color with another shade. See EXTRACT PRINTINGS PRINTING
A dispersing agent, often of a surface active chemical, that promotes formation of a dispersion or maintains a state of dispersion by preventing settling or aggregation.
A class of slightly water-soluble dyes originally introduced for dyeing acetate and usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions. Disperse dyes are widely used for dyeing most of the manufactured fibers. See DYES
1. A system consisting of finely divided particles and the medium in which they are distributed. 2. Separation of light into colors by diffraction or refraction. 3. A qualitative estimation of the separation and uniform distribution of fibers in the liquid during the production of a wet-formed non-woven fabric.
In fibers, a graphic or tabular presentation of the proportion or percentage (by number or by weight) of fibers having different lengths.
DIVIDED THREADLINE EXTRUSION
Spinning of two separate thread-lines from one spinneret.
1. A mechanical attachment on a loom. A dobby controls the harnesses to permit the weaving of geometric figures. 2. A loom equipped with a dobby. 3. A fabric woven on a dobby loom.
Raised or textured weave available in many patterns.
A metal knife that cleans or scrapes the excess dye from engraved printing rollers, leaving dye paste only in the valleys of engraved areas. Also used to describe other blades that are used to apply materials evenly to rollers or fabrics.
defect in printed fabrics consisting of a wavy white or colored streak in the warp direction. It is caused by a damaged or improperly set doctor blade on the printing machine.
A soft low nap that is brushed in one direction. Cloth with this type of finish is used on billiard tables and in menswear.
A set of full bobbins produced by one machine (a roving frame, a spinning frame, or a manufactured filament-yarn extrusion machine).
1. The last or delivery cylinder of the card from which the sheet of fibers is removed by the doffer comb. 2. An operator who removes full bobbins, spools, containers, or other packages from a machine and replaces them with empty ones.
A reciprocating comb, the teeth of which oscillate close to the card clothing of the doffer to strip the web of fibers from the card.
Fibers embedded so deeply into the doffer wire clothing that the doffer comb cannot dislodge them to form a traveling web.
The operation of removing full packages, bobbins, spools, roving cans, caps, etc. from a machine and replacing them with empty ones.
A tweed fabric with colorful slubs woven in, donegal is used for suits and coats.
A sheer cotton or cotton blend fabric with small dot motif, dotted swiss issued for dress goods, curtains, baby clothes, etc.
A secondary backing glued to the back of carpet, usually to increase dimensional stability.
Two ends woven as one in a fabric. A double end may be intentional for fabric styling, or accidental, in which case a fabric defect results.
A fabric woven with two systems of warp or filling threads so combined that only one is visible on either side. Cutting the yarns that hold the two cloths together yields two separate cut pile fabrics. See THREE-DIMENTIONAL WEAVING
Two fabrics are woven in the loom at the same time,one fabric on top of the other, with binder threads holding the two fabrics together. The weave on the two fabrics can be different.
A fabric produced on a circular-knitting machine equipped with two sets of latch needles situated at right angles to each other (dial and cylinder).
1. A process for combining several strands of sliver, roving, or yarn in yarn manufacturing. 2. The process of twisting together two or more singles or plied yarns, i.e. plying. 3. A British term for twisting. 4. The term doubling is sometimes used in a sense opposite to singling. This is unintentional plying. 5. A yarn, considerably heavier that normal,produced by a broken end becoming attached to and twisting into another end.
A rough or irregular yarn made of silk reeled from double or triple cocoons.Fabrics of douppioni have an irregular appearance with long, thin slubs. Douppioni-like yarns are now being spun from polyester and/or rayon staple.
A dry-spinning machine in which the airflow within the drying cabinet is in the same direction as the yarn path (downward).
In quality control, the lowering of the grade and/or value of a product due to the presence of defects.
A cap, ring, or flyer twisting frame.
A process for inserting twist into yarn in which the yarn passes downward from the supply package (a bobbin, cheese, or cone) to the revolving spindle. The package or packages of yarn to be twisted are positioned on the creel, and the ends of yarn are led downward through individual guides and stop motions to the positively driven feed roll and from there to therevolving take-up package or bobbin, which inserts twist.
Trademark of Dow Chemical Company for a series of heat transfer media. Dowtherm jackets are used around molten polymer processing lines.
In weaving, a pattern or plan for drawing-in.
The ratio between the weight or length of fiber fed into various machines and that delivered from the machines in spun yarn manufacture. It represents the reduction in bulk and weight of stock, one of the most important principles in the production of yarn from staple fibers. See DRAW RATIO
A term to describe the way a fabric falls while it hangs; the suppleness and ability of a fabric to form graceful configurations.
The amount by which manufactured filaments are stretched following extrusion. See DRAW RATIO
The ratio of final to original length per unit weight of yarn, laps, slivers, slubbings, rovings, etc., resulting from drawing. Also see DRAFT RATIO DRAW DOWN
A crossed end; an end broken during warping that when repaired was not free or was tied in with an adjacent end or ends overlapping the broken end. The end draws or pulls back when unwound on the slasher. See STICKER
Blends of fibers made at the draw frame by feeding in ends of appropriate card sliver. This method is used when blend uniformity is not a critical factor.
A system linking draw warping and sizing in a continuous process.A typical system includes the following elements: (1) creel, (2) eyelet board, (3) warp-draw machine, (4) intermingler, (5) tension compensator and break monitor, (6) sizing bath, (7) dryers, (8) waxing and winding units.
In the manufacture of thermoplastic fibers, the simultaneous process of drawing to increase molecular orientation and imparting crimp to increase bulk. See DRAW-CRIMPLING
The operation of stretching continuous filament yarn to align and order the molecular and crystalline structure in which the yarn is taken up by means of a ring-and-traveler device that inserts a small amount of twist (usually a quarter to a half turn per inch) into the drawn yarn.
A process in which a number of thread-lines, usually 800 to 2000 ends of POY feedstock,are oriented under essentially equal mechanical and thermal conditions by a stretching stage using variable speed rolls, then directly wound onto the beam. This process gives uniform end-to-end properties. See WARP-DRAWING
The operation of stretching continuous filament yarn to align or order molecular and crystalline structure. The drawn yarn is taken up on a parallel tub or cheese,resulting in a zero-twist yarn.
1. The process of attenuating or increasing the length per unit weight of laps, slivers, slubbings, or rovings. 2. The hot or cold stretching of continuous filament yarn or tow to align and arrange the crystalline structure of the molecules to achieve improved tensile properties.
In weaving, the process of threading warp ends through the eyes of the needles and the dents of the reed.
A zero-twist bundle of continuous filaments that has been stretched to achieve molecular orientation. (Tows for staple and spun yarn application are usually crimped.) See UNDROWN TOW
A strong denim-like material with a diagonal 2 x 1 weave running toward the left selvage. Drill is often called khaki when it is dyed that color.
1. An open design made in knitting by removing some of the needles at set intervals. 2. A defect in knit fabric.
A stop-motion device utilizing metal wires suspended from warp or creeled yarns. When a yarn breaks, the wire drops, activation the switch that stops the machine.
A defect in knit cloth characterized by recurrent cuts in one or more wales of a length of cloth.
Removing dirt and stains from fabrics or garments by processing in organic solvents (chlorinated hydrocarbons or mineral spirits).
The application of finishing chemicals to dry fabric, usually by padding.
The production of fiber webs by methods that do not use water or other liquids, i.e., air-laying or carding.
The process in which a solution of the fiber-forming substance is extruded in a continuous stream into a heated chamber to remove the solvent, leaving the solid filament, as in the manufacture of acetate. See SOLVENT SPINNING SPINNING
Non-woven web made from dry fiber. Usually refers to fabrics from carded webs versus air-laid non-woven's which are formed from random webs.
Any of a number of heated revolving cylinders for drying fabric or yarn. They are arranged either vertically or horizontally in sets, with the number varying according to the material to be dried. They are often internally heated with steam and Teflon-coated to prevent sticking. See CYLINDER CAN
A compact, firm, heavy, plain weave fabric with a weigh of 6 to 50 ounces per square yard. Plied yarn duck has plied yarn in both warp and filling. Flat duck has a warp of two single yarns woven as one and a filling of either single or plied yarn. Also see PLIED YARN DUCK FLAT DUCK CANVAS
A term applied to manufactured fibers that have been chemically or physically modified to reduce their normal luster. Matte; opposite of bright; low in luster.
A defect frequently seen in wet-formed non-woven fabrics; an unusually long fiber will become entangled with groups of regular-length fibers at each end, thus producing a dumbbell-shaped clump.
A term describing a coarse denim-type fabric, usually dyed blue, that is used for work overalls.
A method of printing a pattern on the face and the back of a fabric with equal clarity. See PRINTING
relative term for the resistance of a material to loss of physical properties or appearance as a result of wear or dynamic operation.
A term describing a garment that has been treated so that it retains its smooth appearance, shape, and creases or pleats in laundering. In such garments no ironing is required, particularly if the garment is tumble-dried. Durable press finishing is accomplished by several methods; two of the most common are the following: (1) A fabric that contains a thermoplastic fiber and cotton or rayon may be treated with a special resin that, when cured,imparts the permanent shape to the cotton or rayon component of the fabric. The resin-treated fabric may be precured (cured in finishing and subsequently pressed in garment form at a higher temperature to achieve the permanent shape) or postcured (not cured until the finished garment has been sewn and pressed into shape). In both cases, the thermoplastic fiber in the garment is set in the final heat treatment. This fiber, when heat-set, also contributes to the permanence of the garment shape, but the thermoplastic component of the blend is needed for strength since the cotton or rayon component is somewhat degraded by the durable-press treatment. (2) Garments of a fabric containing a sufficient amount of a thermoplastic fiber, such as polyester, nylon, or acrylic, may be pressed with sufficient pressure and time to achieve a permanent garment shape.(Also see EASE-OF-CARE PERMANENT FINISH WASH-AND-WEAR PERMANENT PRESS
A term applied to a fabric that has been tightly woven so that it resists dust penetration.
The time during a process in which a particular substance remains in one location (e.g., the time during which molten polymer remains in a spinning pack.)
1. An imperfection in fabric caused by residual undissolved dye. 2. A defect caused by small sections of un-drawn thermoplastic yarn that dye deeper that the drawn yarn.
A broad term referring to the collection of dye and chemical baths, drying equipment, etc., in a continuous-dyeing line.
Functional groups within a fiber that provide sites for chemical bonding with the dye molecule. Dye sites may be either in the polymer chain or in chemical additives included in the fiber.
A process of coloring fibres, yarns, or fabrics with either natural or synthetic dyes. Some of the major dyeing processes include BATIK CHAIN DYEING
, CROSS DYEING
, HIGH-TEMPRATURE DYING
, JET DYEING
, MUFF DYEING
, PACKAGE DYEING
, PAD DYEING
, PIECE DYEING
, PRESSURE DYEYING
, RESERVE DYEING
, SHORT-LIQUOR DYEING
, SKEIN DYEING
, SOLUTION DYEING
, SOLVENT DYEING
, SPACE DYEING
, SPUN DYED
, THERMAL FIXATION
, UNION DYEING
, YARN DYEING
, THERMOSOL PROCESS
, WATERLESS DYEING
, PIGMENTED YARN
, RESIST DYEING
, DIP DYEING
, MELT DYED
Various substances that can be added to the dye bath to aid dyeing.They may necessary to transfer the dye from the bath to the fiber or they may provide improvements in leveling, penetration, etc. Also call dyeing assistants.
Substances that add color to textiles. They are incorporated into the fiber by chemical reaction, absorption, or dispersion. Dyes differ in their resistance to sunlight, perspiration,washing, gas, alkalies, and other agents; their affinity for different fibers; their reaction to cleaning agents and methods; and their solubility and method of application. Various classes and types include ACID DYES
, ANTHERAQUINONE DYES
, AZO DYES
, BASIC DYES
, CATIONIC DYES
, DEVELOPED DYES
, DIRECT DYES
, DISPERSE DYES
, FIBER-REACTIVE DIES
, GEL DYEING
, MARCROMOLECULAR DYES
, METALLIZED DYES
, NAPHTHOL DYES
, PREMETALLIZED DYES
, SULFUR DYES
, VAT DYES
, AZOIC DYES
The ability of a cord-to-rubber bond to resist degradation resulting from flexure.
A continuous computer-controlled process for manufacturing tufted carpets with intricate patterns from un-dyed yarn. The carpet is dyed as it is tufted and the colors and pattern are clearly visible through the primary backing of the carpet.