Glossary

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There are 36 names in this directory beginning with the letter N.
NAINSOOK
A fine, lightweight, plain-weave fabric, usually of combed cotton. The fabric is often mercerized to produce luster and is finished soft. Nainsook is chiefly used for infantswear, lingerie and blouses.

NAP
A downy surface given to a cloth when part of the fiber is raised from the basic structure.

NAPHTHALENE
A solid aromatic hydrocarbon (C10H8) derived from coal tar. Naphthalene is used as moth flakes and as the basis of certain dye components.

NAPHTHOL DYES
A type of azo compound formed on the fiber by first treating the fiber with aphenolic compound. The fiber is then immersed in a second solution containing a diazonuim salt that reacts with the phenilic compound to produce a colored azo compound. Since the phenolic compound is dissolved in caustic solution, these dyes are mainly used for cellulose fiber, although other fibers can be dyed by modifying the process. (Also see DYES DEVELOPED DYES.)
Also see: AZOIC DYES

NAPPING
A finishing process that raises the surface fibers of a fabric by means of passage over rapidly revolving cylinders covered with metal points or teasel burrs. Outing, flannel, and wool broadcloth derive their downy appearance from this finishing process. Napping is also used for certain knit goods, blankets, and other fabrics with a raised surface.
Also see: TEASEL BURR GIGGING RAISING

NARROW FABRIC
Any non-elastic woven fabric, 12 inches or less in width, having a selvage on either side, except ribbon and seam binding.

NATURAL FIBER
A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) of: (1)animal (i.e., silk and wool); (2) mineral (i.e., asbestos); or (3) vegetable origin (i.e., cotton, flax,jute, and ramie).
Also see: FIBER

NECKING
1. The sudden reduction in the diameter of an undrawn manufactured filament when it is stretched. 2. Narrowing in width of a fabric or film when it is stretched.

NEEDLE
1. A thin, metal device, usually with an eye at one end for inserting the thread, used in sewing to transport the thread. 2. The portion of a knitting machine used for inter meshing the loops. Several types of knitting needles are available. (Also see SPRING NEEDLE and LATCH NEEDLE.)3. In non-wovens manufacture, a barbed metal device used for punching the web’sown fibers vertically through the web.

NEEDLE BED
Flat metal plate with slots at regular intervals in which the knitting needles slide on the knitting machine.

NEEDLE LOOM
A machine for bonding a non-woven web by mechanically orienting fibers through the web. The process is called needling, or needle punching. Barbed needles set into a board punch fiber into the batt and withdraw, leaving the fibers entangled. The needles are spaced in a nonaligned arrangement. By varying the strokes per minute, the advance rate of the batt, the degree of penetration of the needles, and the weight of the batt, a wide range of fabric densities can be made. For additional strength, the fiber web can be needled to a woven, knit, or bonded fabric.Bonding agents may also be used.
Also see: BONDING

NEEDLE LOOP
A loop of yarn drawn through a loop made previously.

NEEDLE SET-OUT
term that refers to long periods of time when certain needles are removed from the knitting cycle. The process is used to make sweater cuffs.

NEEDLE SLOT
A groove that houses a needle in the cylinder or dial of a circular-knitting machine or the needle bed of a flat-bed machine.

NEEDLED FABRICS
The product of the needle loom (q.v.). Needled fabrics are used for rug pads, paper maker's felts, padding, linings etc.
Also see: BONDING FELTING

NEEDLEPUNCHING
The process of converting batts or webs of loose fibers into a coherent non-woven fabric on a needle loom (q.v.).
Also see: FELTING

NEP
A small knot of entangled fibers that usually will not straighten to a parallel position during carding or drafting.

NET
An open fabric made by knotting the intersections of thread,cord, or wires to form meshes. Net can be made by hand or machine in a variety of mesh sizes and weights matched to varying end uses, i.e. veils, curtains, fish nets, and heavy cargo nets.

NET RATE
In a fiber production process the total throughput less waste and inferior or off-grade material.

NETTING
The process of knotting threads into meshes that will not ravel.

NEUTRON-ABSORBING FIBER
Polyethylene fiber modified with boron used in the nuclear industry for reducing neutron transmission.

NINON
lightweight fabric of silk or manufactured fibers made in a plain weave with an open mesh. Used for curtains and evening wear.

NIP
1. The line or area of contact between two contiguous rollers. 2. A defect in yarn consisting of a thin place.

NIP CREASES
Creases occurring at regular intervals along a fabric selvage subsequent to a nipping operation such as calendering or padding. Such creases are caused by a loosely wound selvage or improper let-off tension which allows the fabric to fold over or gather at the selvage prior to entering the nip of the rolls.

NOIL
A short fiber that is rejected in the combing process of yarn manufacture.

NONELASTIC WOVEN TAPE
A woven narrow fabric, weighing less than 15 ounces per square yard, made principally of natural and/or manufactured fibers, including mono-filaments, but not containing rubber or other similar elastic stands.
Also see: TAPE

NONTORQUE YARN
A yarn that does not rotate or kink when permitted to hang freely. Anon-torque yarn may be the result of plying two equal but opposite torque yarns.
Also see: TEXTURED YARNS

NONWOVEN FABRIC
An assembly of textile fibers held together by mechanical interlocking in a random web or mat, by fusing of the fibers (in the case of thermoplastic fibers), or by bonding with a cementing medium such as starch, glue, casein, rubber, latex, or one of the cellulose derivatives or synthetic resins. Initially, the fibers may be oriented in one direction or may be deposited in a random manner. This web or sheet of fibers is bonded together by one of the methods described above. Normally, crimped fibers that range in length from 0.75 to 4.5 inches are used. Nonwoven fabrics are used for expendable items such as hospitable sheets, napkins, diapers, wiping cloths, as the base material for coated fabrics, and in a variety of other applications. They can also be used for semi-disposable items and for permanent items such as interlinings.
Also see: BONDED FABRIC FORMED FABRIC

NOVELTY YARN
A yarn produced for a special effect. Novelty yarns are usually uneven in size, varied in color, or modified in appearance by the presence of irregularities deliberately produced during their formation. In singles yarns, the irregularities may be caused by inclusion of knots, loops, curls, slubs, and the like. In plied yarns, the irregularities may be effected by variable delivery of one or more yarn components or by twisting together dissimilar singles yarns.Nub and slub are examples of novelty yarns.
Also see: FANCY YARN SLUB YARN

NOVOLOID FIBER
A manufactured fiber containing at least 85% by weight of a cross-linked novolac (FTC definition). Novoloid is flame resistant and non-melting. Its primary use is inflame-protective garments and products.

NOZZLE
1. The spout through which something is discharged, i.e., oil in finish application or fibers in web laying. 2. A term sometimes used to refer to spinnerets.

NUB YARN
A novelty yarn containing slubs, beads, or lumps introduced intentionally
Also see: SLUB YARN

NUCLEATION
A process by which crystals are formed. Crystals form initially on minute traces of foreign substances that act as the nucleus, then grow by external addition.

NUNS VEILING
A soft, lightweight, plain-weave fabric that usually comes in black and white, nuns veiling is a rather flimsy, open fabric but always of high quality. It may be made from fine woolen yarn or yarns spun from manufactured fibers such as nylon, acrylic, or polyester.

NYLON FIBER
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polyamide having recurring amide groups (-NH-CO-) as an integral part of the polymer chain (FTC definition). The two principal nylons are nylon 66, which is polyhexamethylenedianime adipamide, and nylon 6, which is polycaprolactam. Nylon 66 is so designated because each of the raw materials, hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid, contains six carbon atoms. In the manufacture of nylon 66 fiber, these materials are combined, and the resultant monomer is then polymerized. After polymerization, the material is hardened into a translucent ivory-white solid that is cut or broken into fine chips, flakes, or pellets. This material is melted and extruded through a spinneret while in the molten state to form filaments that solidify quickly as they reach the cooler air. The filaments are then drawn, or stretched, to orient the long molecules from a random arrangement to an orderly one in the direction of the fiber axis. This drawing process gives elasticity and strength to the filaments. Nylon 6 was developed in Germany where the raw material, caprolactam, had been known for some time. It was not until nylon 66 was developed in the United States that work was initiated to convert caprolactam into a fiber. The process for nylon 6 is simpler in some respects than that for nylon 66. Although nylon 6 has a much lower melting point than nylon 66 (a disadvantage for a few applications), it has superior resistance to light degradation and better dyeability, elastic recovery, fatigue resistance, and thermal stability. Two other nylons are: (1) nylon 11, a polyamide made from 11-amino-undecanoic acid; and (2) nylon 610, made from the condensation product of hexamethylenediamine and sebacic acid. Nylon 610 has a lower melting point than nylon 66 and the materials for its manufacture are not as readily available as those for nylon 66. Experimental work has been conducted on other nylons.
Also see: POLYAMIDE

NYTRIL FIBER
A manufactured fiber containing at least 85% by weight of a long chain polymer of vinylidenedinitrile [-CH2-C(CN)2-] and having the vinylidenedinitrile group in no less than every other unit in the polymer chain (FTC definition). Nytrilfibers have a low softening point so they are most commonly used in articles that do not require pressing such as sweaters and pile fabrics. They are also blended with wool to improve shrink resistance and shape retention.


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