The property of being sticky or adhesive
A plain-weave fabric with a fine, smooth, crisp hand and usually a lustrous appearance. Taffeta fabric usually has a fine cross rib made by using a heavier filling yarn than warp yarn. Taffetas are produced in solid colors, yarn-dyed plaids and stripes, and prints.Changeable and moirÃ© effects are often employed. Although originally made of silk,manufactured fibers are now often used in the production of taffeta.
The change in length of a filament, yarn, or cord caused by twisting,expressed as a percentage of the original (untwisted) length. See CONTRACTION
The difference in distance between two points in a yarn as it lies in a fabric and the same two points after the yarn has been removed from the fabric and straightened under specified tension, expressed as a percentage of the straightened length. In this sense, take-up is contrasted to the crimp of a yarn in a fabric, which is expressed as a percentage of the distance between the two points in the yarn as it lies in the fabric. Take-up is generally used in connection with greige fabric. See CONTRACTION
The ratio of change in stress to change in strain derived from the tangent to any point on a stress-stain curve.
1. A narrow, woven fabric not over 8 inches in width. 2. In slide fasteners, a strip of material, along one edge of which the bead and scoops are attached, the bead sometimes being integral with the strip. Also see SLIT TAPE NONELASTIC WOVEN TAPE
The weight of all external and internal packing material (including bobbins, tubes, etc.) of a case, bale or other type of container.
Water-resistant fabric used to protect loads or materials from the elements. Maybe a coated fabric, a fabric with waterproof finish, or a fabric that is tightly constructed to prevent water penetration.
The force required to begin or to continue a tear in a fabric under specified conditions.
TEMPERATURE OF ZERO BIREFRINGENCE
The temperature at which the refractive indexes of a material are equal in two perpendicular directions (longitudinally and transversely for a fiber).
The tensile stress when expressed as force per unit linear density of the unstrained specimen (e.g., grams-force per denier or newtons per tex). Also see HIGH TENACITY
Registered trademark of Tencel, Inc. for their brand of cellulosic staple fiber classified as lyocell. See LYOCELL FIBER
The empirical factor T x E1/2 that describes the tenacity elongation exchange relationship for a large number of manufactured fiber systems.
TENSILE HYSTERESIS CURVE
A complex load-elongation, or stress-strain curve obtained: (1) when a specimen is successively subjected to the application of a load or stress less than that causing rupture and to the removal of the load or stress according to a predetermined procedure;or (2) when a specimen is stretched less than the breaking elongation and allowed to relax by removal of the strain according to a predetermined procedure. See TENSILE RECOVERY CURVE STRAIN RECOVERY CURVE
The relative length deformation exhibited by a specimen subjected to a tensile force. Strain may be expressed as a fraction of the nominal gauge length or as a percentage. Also see ELONGATION
1. In general, the strength shown by a specimen subjected to tension as distinct from torsion, compression, or shear. 2. Specifically, the maximum tensile stress expressed in force per unit cross-sectional area of the unstrained specimen, e.g., kilograms per square millimeter, pounds per square inch. (For maximum stress per unit linear density, see BREAKING TENACITY
or BREAKING LENGTH
.) Also See ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH TRUE TENSILE STRENGTH
The resistance to deformation developed within a specimen subjected to tension by external force. The tensile stress is commonly expressed in two ways, either as (1) the tensile strength, i.e., the force per unit cross-sectional area of the unstrained specimen, or as (2)tenacity, i.e., the force per unit linear density of the unstrained specimen. The latter is more frequently used in textile testing.
A method of measuring the resistance of a yarn or fabric to a force tending to stretch the specimen in one direction.
A machine that dries fabric to a specified width under tension. The machine consists essentially of a pair of endless chains on horizontal tracks. The fabric is held firmly at the edges by pins or clips on the two chains that diverge as they advance through the heated chamber, adjusting the fabric to the desired width. See STENTER FRAME
Para-phthalic acid, [C6H4(COOH)2]. Used to produce polyesterresins, fibers, and films by combination with glycols.
A product of the polymerization of three different monomers.
A cotton or cotton-blend fabric having uncut loops on one or both sides.Made on a dobby loom with a terry arrangement or on a Jacquard loom. It is used for towelling, beach robes,etc.
Shades that are obtained by mixing the three primary colors or by mixing one or more of the secondary colors with gray or black.
A chloride, such as carbon tetrachloride, containing four atoms of chlorine.
TETRAFLUOROETHYLENE FIBER TEX
1. A unit for expressing linear density, equal to the weight in grams of 1 kilometer of yarn,filament, fiber, or other textile strand. 2. The system of yarn numbering based on the use of tex units. Also see YARN NUMBER
Originally, a woven fabric; now applied generally to any one of the following: 1.Staple fibers and filaments suitable for conversion to or use as yarns, or for the preparation of woven, knit, or non-woven fabrics. 2. Yarns made from natural or manufactured fibers. 3. Fabrics and other manufactured products made from fibers as defined above and from yarns. 4. Garments and other articles fabricated from fibers, yarns, or fabrics when the products retain the characteristic flexibility and drape of the original fabrics.
A general term for fibers, yarn intermediates, yarn, fabrics, and products made from fabrics that retain more or less completely the strength, flexibility, and other typical properties of the original fiber or filaments.
Any mechanical operation used to translate a textile fiber or yarn to a fabric or other textile material. This includes such operations as opening, carding, spinning,plying, twisting, texturing, coning, quilling, beaming, slashing, weaving, and knitting. See STAPLE PROCESSING
A term describing the surface effect of a fabric, such as dull, lustrous, wooly, stiff,soft, fine, coarse, open, or closely woven; the structural quality of a fabric.
An adjective used to describe continuous filament manufactured yarns (and woven and knit fabrics made therefrom) that have been crimped or have had random loops imparted, or that have been otherwise modified to create a different surface texture. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS TEXTURING
Yarns that develop stretch and bulk on subsequent processing. When woven or knitted into fabric, the cover, hand, and other aesthetics of the finished fabric better resemble the properties of a fabric constructed from spun yarn. Yarn types can be as follows: BULKED YARN
, COIL YARN
, CORE-BULKED YARN
, CRINKLE YARN
, ENTANGLED YARN
, MODIFIED STRETCH YARN
, NONTORQUE YARN
, SET YARN
, STRETCH YARN
Also see: EDGE CRIMPING METHOD
, GEAR CRIMPING METHOD
, KNIT-DE-KNIT METHOD
, STUFFER BOX METHOD
, HIGH-BULK YARN
, AIR JET METHOD
, CRIMPED YARN
, CRINDLE YARN
, LOOPY YARN
The process of crimping, imparting random loops, or otherwise modifying continuous filament yarn to increase cover, resilience, abrasion resistance, warmth, insulation,and moisture absorption or to provide a different surface texture. Texturing methods can be placed roughly into six groups: JET
, EDGE CRIMPING
, FALSE-TWIST METHOD
, GEAR CRIMPING
, STUFFER BOX
A tactile property of a textile material. It is the difference felt in the temperature of the material and the skin of the person touching it.
A measure of heat flow through a material.
A process for dyeing polyester whereby the color is diffused into the fiber by means of dry heat. See THERMOSOL PROCESS
This instrumented mannequin system, interfaced with a computer, allows full scale testing of garments for protection capability or degree of flammability. The system was developed by Accurex Corporation for the U.S. Air Force. See FLAMMABILITY TESTS
Analytical technique in which the rate of change in weight of a material undergoing continuous heating versus temperature is plotted. Used in analysis of polymers to provide information on such parameters as degree of crystallinity, glass transition temperature, thermal stability, etc.
A term used to describe a plastic material that is permanently fusible. The term as applied to manufactured fibers describes their tendency to soften at higher temperatures.
A term used to describe a plastic that, once formed, does not melt when heated.
Polymer that exhibits liquid crystal formation in melt form. In thermotropic polymers there must be a balance between having the necessary degree of molecular perfection to preserve the liquid crystal formation and the amount of imperfection to permit melting at workable temperatures. These polymers give high-modulus, highly oriented,extrusion products.
A novelty yarn of varying thickness.
1. A slender, strong strand or cord, especially one designed for sewing or other needlework. Most threads are made by plying and twisting yarns. A wide variety of thread types are in use today, e.g., spun cotton and spun polyester, core-spun cotton with a polyester filament core, polyester or nylon filaments (often bonded), and monofilament threads. 2. A general term for yarns used in weaving and knitting, as in thread count and warp thread. See SEWING THREAD
1. The number of ends and picks per inch in a woven cloth. 2. The number of wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric.
A high-speed method developed by Celanese for converting crimped continuous filament tow into highly bulked, uniformly spread webs of up to 108-inch widths. The webs are useful in a variety of products, such as cigarette filters, sleeping pillows,and battings. See DEREGISTERING (CRIMP)
The fiber lines of a manufactured fiber in extrusion or subsequent processes.
The process of directing or threading fiber or fabric through all machine positions to start or restart a process, or the configuration resulting therefrom. See STRING UP
A tricot fabric made on a machine equipped with three guide bars.
To produce three-dimensional textiles, yarns are simultaneously woven in three directions (length, width, and thickness) rather than in the conventional two. The types of structures that can be produced fall into four broad classes: (1) contoured fabrics, (2) expandable fabrics, (3) interwoven fabrics (Also see DOUBLE WEAVE
), and (4) contoured interwoven fabrics.
The amount of raw material processed in a specific time. This is the actual amount, not a percentage.
The operation of doubling or twisting silk or manufactured filament yarns.
A company that specializes in putting additional twist in yarn. More recently,the term also applies to a company that specializes in texturing yarns.
The fringe of warp yarns that remains on the loom when the woven fabric has been cut free.
A durable, closely woven fabric used for covering box springs, mattresses, and pillows. Ticking may be woven in a plain, satin, or twill weave, usually with strong warp yarns and soft filling yarns.
tensile testing, the time interval during which a specimen is under prescribed conditions of tension and is absorbing the energy required to reach maximum load.
Coloration that produces a very pale shade. A tint usually represents the minimum amount of color that will give perceptible appearance of coloration. In yarn processing, fugitive tints are used for identification, then removed in wet processing.
A textured pile carpet similar to a random-sheared carpet, but with a less defined surface effect.
The geometry of the various layers of tire fabric in the final tire. Three constructions are commonly used: BIAS TIRE, RADIAL TIRE and BIAS/BELTED TIRE. See BIAS TIRE
, RADIAL TIRE
, BIAS/BELTED TIRE
A textile material used to impart the flex resistance necessary for tire reinforcement. Tire yarns of polyester, rayon, nylon, aramid, glass, or steel are twisted to 5 to 12 turns per inch. Two or more of these twisted yarns are twisted together in the opposite direction to obtain a cabled tire cord. The twist level required depends on the material, the yarn line ardensity, and the particular application of the cord. Normally, tire cords are twisted to about the same degree in the S and Z directions, which means that the net effect is almost zero twist in the finished cord. Also see TIRE FABRIC
A loose fabric woven to facilitate large-scale dipping, treating, and calendaring of tire cords. Usually, 15 to 35 tire cords per inch of warp are woven into a tire fabric by 2 to 5 light filling yarns per inch. In these fabrics, the strength is in the warp and the filling only holds cords in position for processing. The filling yarns are normally broken during tire molding. The warp cords are polyester, rayon, nylon, aramid, glass, or steel and range in strength from 30 pounds to over 100 pounds per cord. A 60-inch fabric would normally have a warp strength of about 7,000 pounds. Such fabrics are used for tire carcasses and tire belts. More conventional square woven fabrics are used in certain parts of a tire such as the bead, chafer, and wrapping. Also see TIRE CORD
Fabric consisting of tire cord in the warp with single yarn filling a text ended intervals.
A compound (TiO2) that occurs naturally in three different forms (rutile, anatase, and brookite). It is used chiefly as a pigment or delusterant in paint or fiber.
A thin, lightweight, open cloth used to shade and protect tobacco plants.
In knitting hosiery, this term refers to closing the toe opening. It may be knit closed, or in tube hosiery, sewn closed.
1. A broad term describing many simple plain weave twill fabrics, especially those made from linen. 2. Sheer cotton and linen fabrics.
TONGUE TEAR STRENGTH
The average force required to tear a rectangular sample with a cut in the edge at the center of the shorter side. The two tongues are gripped in a tensile tester and the force required to continue and tear is measured.
1. A wool sliver that has been combed to straighten the fibers and to remove short fiber; an intermediate stage in the production of worsted yarn. 2. A similar untwisted strand of manufactured staple delivered by the comb or made directly from tow.
Colors used on the ground color to form a design.
1. The process of covering with an additional dye, not necessarily of the same color or class, to obtain the desired shade. 2. Fiber in top form is placed in cans and dyed in a batch-dye vessel with reverse cycling capability. An expensive process that is used primarily for fancy yarns.
A force or a combination of forces that produces or tends to produce a twisting or rotating motion. In reference to yarn, torque refers to the yarns tendency to turn on itself, or kink, as a result of twisting.
When a torque yarn is permitted to hang freely, it rotates or kinks to relieve the torque introduced into the yarn during texturing. See TEXTURED YARNS
TOTAL DENIER (OF TOW)
The product of the denier per filament times the number of filaments in a tow.
1. Ability of a material to endure large deformations without rupture. 2. The actual work per unit mass required to rupture a fiber or a yarn.
A large strand of continuous manufactured fiber filaments without definite twist, collected in loose, rope-like form, usually held together by crimp. Tow is the form that most manufactured fiber reaches before being cut into staple. It is often processed on tow-conversion machinery into tops, sliver, or yarn, or on tow-opening equipment to make webs for various uses.
In the production of polyester from dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol, the process of exchanging ethylene glycol for the methyl groups to obtain bis-?- hydroxyethyl terephthalate. The methanol generated in the reaction is removed as it is formed to drive the reaction to completion. See ESTER INTERCHANGE
A long end of yarn wound at the base of a package that permits increased warping or transfer efficiency by providing an easily accessible connecting point for the succeeding package.
A temperature at which some radical change, usually a phase change, in the appearance or structure of a substance occurs. Examples of transition temperatures are melting point, boiling point, and second-order transition temperature.
An end that is unable to unwrap or unwind from the beam. Trapping of an end may be prolonged or intermittent depending upon the cause of trapping (e.g., rolled ends at the selvage,short ends, or mechanical difficulties).
A C-shaped, metal clip that revolves around the ring on a ring spinning frame. It guides the yarn onto the bobbin as twist is inserted into the yarn.
The lateral distance between the points of reversal of the wind on a yarn package.
A term describing the rippled or wavy effect sometimes seen when a bonded fabric is stretched in the horizontal (width wise)direction. This defect is caused by bias tensions present when two distorted or skewed fabrics are bonded.
A manufactured fiber produced from cellulosetriacetate in the forms of filament yarn, staple, and tow. Cellulosetriacetate fiber differs from acetate fiber in that during its manufacture the cellulose is completely acetylated whereas acetate, which is diacetate,is only partially acetylated. The FTC notes that a fiber may be called triacetate when not less than 92% of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated. Fabrics of triacetate have higher heat resistance than acetate fabrics and can be safely ironed at higher temperatures. Triacetate fabrics that have been properly heat-set (usually after dyeing) have improved ease-of-care characteristics because of a change in the crystalline structure of the fiber. Also see ACETATE FIBER
Glycerol triacetate. A type of plasticizer for acetate fibers. It is widely used to add firmness to cigarette filter rods.
Completely isotropic fabrics made in a weaving process employing three yarns at 60??angles to each other. These fabrics have no stretch or distortion in any direction. With equal sizes and number of yarns in all three directions, the fabric approaches equal strength and stiffness in all directions.
A generic term for the most common type of warp-knit fabric. It has fine wales on the face and course wise ribs on the back. It can be made in a plain jersey construction or in meshes,stripes, and many other designs. Tricot is usually made of triacetate, acetate, polyester, nylon, or rayon. Also see JERSEY
, TRICOT KNITTING
A metal flanged beam, commonly 42 inches in width, on which yarn is wound for use as a supply for the tricot machine. See TRICOT SECTION
TRICOT FABRIC YIELD
The number of square yards per pound of greige or finished tricot fabric.
A run-resistant type of warp knitting in which either single or double sets of yarn are used. Also see TRICOT
, WARP KNITTING
A polymer consisting of three monomer units. Also see CYCLIC TRIMER
TRISKELION CROSS SECTION
A trilobal cross section in which the radiating arms are curved or bent. Also see CROSS-SECTION
In shade matching during dyeing, these values represent the amount of each of the three primary colors that, when mixed additively, will generate the desired shade.
TRUE TENSILE STRENGTH
The maximum tensile stress expressed in force per unit area of the specimen at the time of rupture. Also see TENSILE STRENGTH
1. A cylindrical holder or bobbin used as a core for a cylindrical yarn package. 2. Acylindrical yarn package.
A woven, knit, or braided fabric of cylindrical form, having a width of over 4 inches.
A fabric woven or knit in a tube form with no seams, such as seamless pillowcases, some knit underwear fabrics, and seamless hosiery. Also see CIRCULAR-KNIT FABRIC
A knitting stitch made when a needle receives a new yarn without losing its old loop.
1. A cluster of soft yarns drawn through a fabric and projecting from the surface in the form of cut yarns or loops. 2. The portion of pile-like material that comprises a tufted fabric or carpet. (Also see TUFTED FABRIC and TUFTED CARPET.)
Carpet produced by a tufting machine instead of a loom. It is an out growth of hand-tufted bedspreads. Today, broadloom tufting machines produce over 90% of all domestic carpeting. Tufting machines are essentially multi-needle sewing machines that push the pile yarns through a primary backing fabric and hold them in place to form loops as the needles are withdrawn. The loops are then either released for loop-pile carpets or cut for cut-pile carpets. The pile yarns may be either pre-dyed or uncolored, in which case, the greige carpet is then piece-dyed or printed. In either case, a latex or other binding agent is applied to the back stitch to lock the tufts in place and to secure the secondary backing fabric. Formerly, all carpets were woven, either by hand or machine. The significantly greater productivity of tufting has revolutionized the carpet industry and made soft floor coverings available to the mass market. See CARPETS
Cotton sheeting, lightweight duck, or other fabric decorated with fluffy tufts of multiple-ply, soft-twist cotton yarns or manufactured fiber yarns closely arranged in-continuous lines or spaced at intervals to produce the type of fabric called candlewick. The tufts are inserted and cut by machine in previously woven fabric or are woven in by the loom and afterwards cut to form the tufts. They have a chenille-like softness and bulk and are erroneously called chenille. Patterns vary from simple straight lines and elaborate designs to completely covered materials resembling long pile fabrics. The may be white, solid colored, or multicolored.Tufted fabrics are used for bedspreads, bath mats, and robes, etc. See CHENILLE
A fine, very lightweight, machine-made net usually having a hexagonal mesh effect.Tulle is used in ballet costumes and veils.
Test for the flammability of floor coverings in which a sample is placed on the ceiling of a tunnel of specific dimensions and ignited under controlled conditions to determine the extent to which it will burn. (Also called Steiner Tunnel Test.) See FLAMMABILITY TESTS
The decrease in optical transparency of a solution because of the presence of particulate matter.
The distance parallel to the axis of a yarn or rope in which a strand makes one complete spiral. Also see TWIST
A curled selvage
An irregular, soft, flexible, unfinished, shaggy wool or wool-blend fabric made with a 2/2 twill weave. Tweeds are used in all types of coat fabrics and suitings.
A fundamental weave characterized by diagonal lines produced by a series of floats staggered in the warp direction. The floats are normally formed by filling (filling-faced twill). A warp-face twill is a weave in which the warp yarns produce the diagonal effect. See WEAVE
A spinning process in which yarn is made by binding fibers with an adhesive, then removing the adhesive after the yarn is made into fabric.
1. A plied yarn made form medium-twist single yarns with ply twist in the opposite direction. 2. A single-strand yarn, usually 3 or 4 millimeters in diameter, made of hard fibers,such as henequen, sisal, abaca, or phormium, and sufficiently stiff to perform satisfactorily on amechanical grain binder.
The number of turns about its axis per unit of length of a yarn or other textile strand.Twist is expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpcm). See TURN
The ratio of turns per inch to the square root of the yarn count. See SPIN MULTIPLIER
A process for fixing twist in yarns to deaden torque and eliminate kinking during further processing. There are several methods that use steam to condition the packages of yarns.
TWIST, DIRECTION OF
The direction of twist in yarns and other textile strands is indicated by the capital letters S and Z. Yarn has S-twist if when it is held vertically, the spirals around its central axis slope in the same direction as the middle portion of the letter S,and Z-twist if they slope in the same direction as the middle portion of the letter Z. When two or more yarns, either single or plied, are twisted together, the letters S and Z are used in a similar manner to indicate the direction of the last twist inserted. See DIRECTION OF TWIST
, S TWIST
1. The process of combining filaments into yarn by twisting them together or combining two or more parallel singles yarns (spun or filament) into plied yarns or cords. Cables are made by twisting plied yarns or cords. Twisting is also employed to increase strength, smoothness, and uniformity, or to obtain novelty effects in yarn. 2. A very high level of twist is added to single or plied yarns to make crepe yarns. This operation generally is called creping or throwing. 3. The process of adding twist to a filament yarn to hold the filaments together for ease in subsequent textile processing, etc.
A short section of real twist in false-twist yarn that prevents crimp development and hence causes a pinhole effect in fabric. Also called twist bleed or tight spot. See TWIST BLEED
, TIGHT SPOT
A twister that inserts twist at a rate of twice the spindle speed. For example, at a spindle speed of 2,000 rpm, 4,000 turns per minute are inserted in the yarn.