Glossary

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There are 25 names in this directory beginning with the letter V.
V-BED FLAT-KNITTING MACHINE
A latch-needle weft-knitting machine with two needle-beds at a 90 degree angle to each other in the form of an inverted V. Each needle bed is at a 45 degree angle to the horizontal. These machines are used primarily to produce collars, sleeves, sweater strips, and rib trims.

VARIANT
A manufactured fiber modified in polymer configuration or by additive during manufacture, resulting in a change in the properties of the fiber. Examples are flame-retardant variants, deep-dyeing variants, high-tenacity variants, low-pilling variants, and cotton-blending or wool-blending variants.

VAT DYES
A class of water-insoluble dyes which are applied to the fiber in a reduced, soluble form (leuco compound) and then reoxidized to the original insoluble form. Vat dyes are among the most resistant dyes to both washing and sunlight. They are widely used on cotton, linen, rayon, and other cellulosic fibers. See DYES

VECTRAN FIBER
Manufactured fiber spun from Celanese Vectra liquid crystal polymer.These fibers have high-temperature resistance, high strength and modulus, and high resistance to moisture and chemicals, with good property retention in hostile environments. They are used as matrix fibers for advanced composites and as reinforcing fibers in advanced composites, ropes and cables, and in electronics applications.

VEGETABLE FIBER
A textile fiber of vegetable origin, such as cotton, kapok, jute, ramie,and flax.

VELOUR
1. Generally, a soft, closely woven fabric with a short, thick pile, weighting about 10 to 20 ounces per yard and made in a plain or satin weave. Velour is usually made of cotton or wool, or with a cotton warp in wool, silk, or mohair velour. It is also made in blends of spun manufactured fiber and wool. Velours are used for coats, draperies, upholstery, powder puffs,and other pile items. 2. A felt with velvet-like texture used for men’s and women’s hats.

VELVET CARPET
A woven carpet in which the pile ends are lifted over wires that are inserted in the same manner as the filling and that cut the pile as they are withdrawn.

VELVET FABRIC
A warp-pile woven fabric with short, dense cut pile that produces a rich fabric appearance and soft texture.Two methods are used for weaving velvets. In the double-cloth method, two fabrics are woven face to face with the pile ends interlocking. A reciprocating knife cuts through these pile ends to produce two separate pieces of velvet. In the second method, pile ends are lifted over cutting wires that are inserted with the filling and that are withdrawn to cut the pile. Velvet is produced in a wide range of constructions and types. Originally made of silk, but now also of cotton or manufactured fibers giving fabrics that are sometimes washable. The fabric can be specially finished to make it crush-resistant and water-repellent or it may be embossed or patterned by burn-out printing. See WARP PILE

VELVETEEN
A fabric with a low filling pile made by cutting an extra set of filling yarns woven in a float formation and bound to the back of the material at intervals by weaving over and under one or more warp ends.

VERTICAL FLAME TEST
A test for flame resistance in which a specimen is mounted in a vertical holder and exposed to an open flame for a specific time. The open flame is then extinguished and continued flaming time and char length of the sample are measured. See FLAMMABILITY TESTS

VIBROSCOPE
instrument for determining the mass per unit length of a fiber.

VINAL FIBER
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 50% by weight of vinyl alcohol units and in which the total of the vinyl alcohol units and any one or more of the various acetal units is at least 85% by weight of the fiber (FTC definition). Vinal fibers show good chemical resistance but soften at comparatively low temperatures. Vinyl fibers are used for apparel, industrial goods, and fishnets.

VINYL
A univalent radical, (CH2=CH-), derived from ethylene.

VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE
A chemical material obtained from ethylene, a petroleum product,and from chlorine. It is used for the manufacture of textile mono-filaments and film. It is more commonly identified in the U.S. as saran. See SARAN FIBER

VINYON FIBER
A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of vinyl chloride units (FTC definition).

VISCOMETER
A device designed to measure the viscosity (resistance to flow) of the fluid.Many types exist from simple calibrated glass tubes to extensively instrumented, on-line shearviscometers.

VISCOSE PROCESS
1. One of the methods of producing rayon. See RAYON FIBER 2. The chemical process used in the manufacture of cellophane. (Also see VISCOSE SOLUTION)

VISCOSE RAYON
One type of rayon. It is produced in far greater quantity than cuprammonium rayon, the other commercial type. (Also see RAYON FIBER.)

VISCOSE SOLUTION
The solution obtained by dissolving cellulose xanthate in caustic soda,from which viscose filaments and cellophane are produced. See VISCOSE PROCESS

VISCOSITY
The internal flow resistance of a fluid. See INTRINSIC VISCOSITY Also see RELATIVE VISCOSITY

VOILE FABRIC
A sheer spun cloth that is lightweight and soft. It is usually made with cylindrical, combed yarn. Voile is used for blouses, childrens wear, draperies, bedspreads, etc.

VOLATILE
Readily vaporized at a relatively low temperature.

VOLATILITY
Property of having a low boiling point or temperature of sublimation at normal pressure. Likewise, having a high vapor pressure at ambient conditions.

VOLUME RESISTIVITY
The ration of the potential gradient parallel to the direction of current flow in a compound to the current density after a specified time of voltage application.

VULCANIZATION
See CURING


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