1. In knit fabrics, a column of loops lying lengthwise in the fabric. The number of wales per inch is a measure of the fineness of the fabric. 2. In woven fabrics, one of a series of ribs, cords, etc., running either warp wise or filling wise.
1. The set of yarn in all woven fabrics, that runs lengthwise and parallel to the selvage and is interwoven with the filling. 2. The sheet of yarns wound together on a beam for the purpose of weaving or warp knitting. See WARP SHEET
A large spool or flanged cylinder around which the warp threads, or ends, are wound in a uniform and parallel arrangement. (Also see BEAM.)
type of knitting in which the yarns generally run lengthwise in the fabric. The yarns are prepared as warps on beams with one or more yarns for each needle. Examples of this type of this type of knitting are TRICOT, MILANESE, and RASCHEL knitting.
See MILANESE KNITTING
Also see RASCHEL KNITTING
Also see TRICOT KNITTING
Also see KNITTING
The extra set of warp yarns that forms the surface in a double-woven pile fabric, including types such as velvet and velour. Upholstery fabrics such as mohair, plush, and frieze are produced by this method. See PILE
Also see VELVET FABRIC
The printing of a design on the sheet of warp yarns before weaving. The filling is either white or a neutral color, and a grayed effect is produced in the areas of the design. See SPACE DYEING
Also see PRINTING
A sheet comprising up to several thousand ends that are combined to make up the warp during preparation for weaving or warp knitting. See WARP
A fabric fault that shows as bands or streaks running warp wise. Warp streaks should not be confused with reed marks.
Warp-drawn fibers may be taken up on packages other than beams.
A fabric that is knit with the yarns running lengthwise, e.g., tricot, milanese, and Raschel.
A generic term applied to garments that satisfactorily retain their original neat appearance after repeated wear and home laundering with little or no pressing or ironing. A wash-and-wear garment is essentially free from undesirable wrinkles both during wear and after laundering and retains any original pressed-in creases or pleats. The garments should meet normal consumer demands for durability, color, stability, and shrinkage. The performance of a wash-and-wear fabric or garment depends on several factors, including the types and amounts (percentages) of fibers used, the fabric construction, the finishing treatment, the presence of a colored pattern (either woven or printed), and the methods used for washing and drying. These factors determine, in any specific instance, if a fabric or garmentâ€™s performance will meet customer requirements. Variable conditions result in the varying behavior of a specific fabric or garment. Garments are labeled to specify the appropriate care for optimal performance. See EASE-OF-CARE
Also see DURABLE PRESS
The resistance of a dyed fabric to loss of color or change in properties during home or commercial laundering.
By-products created in the manufacture of fibers, yarns, and fabrics
A term applied to fabrics that can shed water but are permeable to air and comfortable to wear. These fabrics are produced by treating the material with a resin, wax, or plastic finish that is not completely permanent.
A term applied to materials that are impermeable to water; waterproof fabrics have had all their pores closed and are also impermeable to air and very uncomfortable.
A web of fiber that, when being transferred from the card doffer to the calender rolls to form sliver, does not have sufficient strength from fiber cohesion or clinging entanglement to hold itself together while forming a continuous bridge in processing.
A yarn that is found to be either below standard breaking specifications or to be weak enough to cause an abnormally high degree of stops in textile processing.
A test for fabric wear, abrasion, flexibility, washing, crushing, creasing, etc., in which the fabric is made into a garment, worn for a specific time, then assessed for performance.
An instrument used in measuring the weather resistance of textiles. It can simulate various weather conditions such as sunlight, rain, dew, and thermal shock. Weathering is accelerated to the degree that the effects of years of normal use are attained in only a few days.
A system or pattern of intersecting warp and filling yarns. There are three basic two dimensional weaves: plain, twill, and satin. All other weaves are derived from one or more of these types. See PLAIN WEAVE
Also see TWILL WEAVE
Also see SATIN WEAVE
The method or process of interlacing two yarns of similar materials so that they cross each other at right angles to produce woven fabric. The warp yarns, or ends, run lengthwise in the fabric, and the filling threads (weft), or picks, run from side to side. Weaving can be done on a power or hand loom or by several hand methods.
Also see WOVEN FABRIC
1. The wide film of fibers that is delivered from the card. 2. A similar product of other web-forming equipment, such as that formed by air deposition and used to make non-woven fabrics. 3. A term loosely used for lightweight non-woven fabrics. 4. See WEBBING
Strong, narrow fabric, closely woven in a variety of weaves and principally used for belts and straps that have to withstand strain (e.g., automobile seat belts, reinforcement of upholstery, suspenders, etc.). Elastic webbing is made with spandex or rubber yarns in part of the warp or filling, or both. See WEB
1. Any one of the various methods, shuttle, rapier, water jet, etc., for making a pick during weaving. 2. A marriage of warp knitting and weaving brought about by inserting a length of yarn across the width of the knitting elements and fastening the weft yarn between the needle loop and the underlap. See METAP WEAVE-KNIT PROCESS
Also see PROJECTILE LOOM
Also see RAPIER LOOMS
Also see JET LOOM
Also see LOOM
A common type of knitting, in which one continuous thread runs crosswise in the fabric making all of the loops in one course. Weft knitting types are circular and flat knitting. See FRAMEWORK KNITTING
Also see KNITTING
See CIRCULAR-KNIT FABRIC and FLAT-KNIT FABRIC.
Silk that has been treated with metallic salts during dyeing and finishing to increase the fabrics weight and improve its drape. Over-weighting can cause deterioration of the fabric.
1. A finished edge on knit goods, especially hosiery. In womens stockings, it is a wide band knitted from heavier yarn than the leg and folded on itself. 2. A small cord covered with fabric and sewn along a seam or border to add strength. 3. A seam made by folding the fabric double, generally over a cord, and sewing it. 4. A term sometimes used for piquÃ©.
The production of a non-woven fabric web from an aqueous suspension of fibers by filtering the short fibers onto a screen belt or perforated drum.
The process in which a solution of the fiber-forming substance is extruded into a liquid coagulating medium where the polymer is regenerated, as in the manufacture of viscose or cuprammoniumrayon. See SPINNING
The measurement of the strength of a material when it is saturated with water, normally relative to the dry strength.
Fabric made by the wet-forming process. The short fibers typically have more random orientation in the web and the web has more isotropic properties than carded webs.
A compact woven fabric having a very steep twill on the face of the goods. Whipcord is used in dress woolens, worsteds, or wool blends and in many types of uniforms.
A type of crepe fabric produced from false-twist-textured polyester yarn.
Fine fibrils or crystals from polymers, metals, etc.
A broad term describing any goods that have been finished in the white conditions.
The ability of fibres or fabrics to disperse and allow moisture to pass through to the surface where it can be evaporated. Normally used in base and mid layers.
1. Cord, loosely woven or braided tape, or tubing to be cut into wicks. 2. Dispersing or spreading of moisture or liquid through a given area, vertically or horizontally; capillary action in material.
A horizontal measurement of a material. In woven fabric, it is the distance from selvage to selvage, and in flat-knit fabric, the distance from edge to edge.
A wet-processing unit for open-width processing of fabric. The fabric passes up and down over rollers in the liquor. The unit is widely used for dyeing, washing, pre-treating, and after-treating.
Woven carpet in which the pile yarns are woven in as an integral part of the carpet, being held in place by the filling, usually made on a loom with a Jacquard head. The pile may be formed by wires and hooks or by weaving between two backings, in which case, the pile ends are cut to form two separate carpets. Wilton carpets are made in two types: (1) cut pile, e.g., tournia, Wilton moquette, plush, and velvet, and (2) loop pile, e.g., Brussels.
number of wraps that an end or ends make in traversing from one side of a wound package to the other side and back to the first side.
See TRAVERSE RATIO
Winding is the process of transferring yarn or thread from one type of package to another to facilitate subsequent processing. The re handling of yarn is an integral part of the fiber and textile industries. Not only must the package and the yarn itself be suitable for processing on the next machine in the production process, but also other factors such as packing cases, pressure due to winding tension, etc., must be considered. Basically, there are two types of winding machines: precision winders and drum winders. Precision widers, used primarily for filament yarn, have a traverse driven by a cam that is synchronized with the spindle and produce packages with a diamond-patterned wind. Drum winders are used principally for spun yarns; the package is driven by frictional contact between the surface of the package and the drum.
A fabric defect caused by nonuniform yarn. When thin sections of yarn become grouped together, the resultant increase in the transparency of the fabric is called window paning.
A fabric defect that consists of filling wise streaks resembling the irregular appearance of wood grain in lumber. Wood grain is usually caused by strained filling in quilling, the tension being more pronounced near the butt of the quill.
The cellulosic raw material for viscose rayon and for acetate.
The term is usually used for the fleece of sheep, but according to the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, wool is defined for purposes of labeling as: 'The fiber from the fleece of the sheep or lamb or hair of the Angora or Cashmere goat (and may include the so called specialty fibers from the hair of the camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna) which has never been reclaimed from any woven or felted wool product.' Wool is used in a variety of blends in which it is combined with nearly all natural or manufactured fibers. Wool fibers have scales that tend to interlock with each other, binding the fibers together. This process is called felting. In blends, particularly those with manufactured fibers, wool is used to improve the feel or appearance of finished products. Manufactured fibers are sometimes blended with wool to enable the spinning of very fine or loosely twisted yarns with increased tensile strength or to produce ease-of-care properties. Wool can be treated to control shrinkage, to provide resistance to damage by moths, to impart stain-resistance, and to set permanent creases in fabrics.
A type of roller card used in the woolen spinning system, usually consisting of three cards in tandem: the breaker, intermediate, and finisher sections.
The two systems used to determine woolen yarn counts in the U.S. are the run system and the cut system. The run system has a standard of 1600 yards per hand, while the cut system is based on 300 yards per hank.
woolen yarn measure. A 1-cut woolen yarn has 300 yards in one pound of yarn.
A woolen yarn measure. A 1-run woolen yarn has 1,600 yards in one pound of yarn, a 2-run yarn has 3,200 yards, and so on.
The fundamental system of making yarns for woolen fabrics. In yarns spun on the woolen system, the fibers are not parallel but are crossed in what appears to be a haphazard arrangement. After blending, fibers produced on the woolen system are evenly distributed in carding on two, three, or even four cards. From here, the split web, called roving, goes to the spinning frame. In addition to wool, manufactured fibers, cotton, wastes, and noils can be processed on the woollen system. In general, the fibers used are shorter and more highly crimped than those used on the worsted system and are of the type that can be fulled.
The ratio of recoverable work to the total work required to strain a fiber a specified amount under a given program of strain rate.
The irrecoverable loss of weight or yardage of a textile material that occurs during a textile process.
A general term applied to fabrics and yarns from combed wool and wool blends. Worsted yarn is smooth-surfaced, and spun from evenly combed long staple. Worsted fabric is made from worsted yarns and is tightly woven with a smooth, hard surface, Gabardine and serge are examples of worsted fabrics.
A type of roller card user for worsted-system processing. It usually comprises two cards in tandem; the unit has a roller that carries the stock from the first card to the feed-in of the second card.
A woolen yarn measure. A 1s worsted yarn has 560 yards in one pound of yarn.
A system of textile processing for manufacturing spun yarns from staple fibers usually over 3 inches in length. The main operations are carding, combing, drafting, and spinning. There are three basic systems of worsted yarn spinning: the Bradford (or English system), the French (Alsatian or Continental system), and the American system.
Generally used to refer to fabric composed of two sets of yarns, warp and filling, that is formed weaving, which is the interlacing of these sets of yarns. However, there are woven fabrics in which three sets of yarn are used to give a triaxial weave. In two-dimensional wovens, there may be two or more warps and fillings in a fabric, depending on the complexity of the construction. The manner in which the two sets of yarns are interlaced determines the weave. By using various combinations of the three basic weaves, plain, twill, and satin, it is possible to produce an almost unlimited variety of constructions. Other effects may be obtained by varying the type of yarns, filament or spun, and the fiber types, twist levels, etc. See WEAVING
That property of a fabric that enables it to recover from folding deformations. See CREASE RECOVERY
That property of a fabric that enables it to resist the formation of wrinkles when subjected to a folding deformation. Wrinkle resistance in a fabric is a desirable attribute, but it is not easily measured quantitatively. Wrinkle resistance varies from quite low in many fabrics to very high in resilient fabrics. In order to form a wrinkle, a fabricâ€™s wrinkle resistance must be overcome. The fabric may, however, produce strains and store potential energy that can become evident as wrinkle recovery under suitable conditions.
WRONG COLOR PICK
See MIXED END or FILLING.